Controlled release of organic–inorganic nanohybrid:cefadroxil intercalated Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide
Authors Khan SB, Alamry KA, Alyahyawi NA, Asiri AM
Received 4 April 2017
Accepted for publication 28 December 2017
Published 29 May 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 3203—3222
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster
Sher Bahadar Khan,1,2 Khalid A Alamry,2 Nedaa A Alyahyawi,3 Abdullah M Asiri1,2
1Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Background: The intercalation of an antibiotic drug, cefadroxil (CD), into the inter-gallery of Zn, Al nitrate-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was accomplished using a co-precipitation method. This formed a nanostructured organic–inorganic hybrid material that can be exploited for the preparation of a controlled release formulation.
Materials and methods: The drug–LDH nanohybrid was characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, which confirmed the intercalation process. Release tests of nanohybrid in the presence or absence of NaCl or polyacrylamide (PAM) were performed in vitro in gastric (pH 1.2), lysosomal (pH 4.0), intestinal (pH 6.8) and blood (pH 7.4) simulated fluid using UV–vis spectroscopy.
Results: At pH 1.2, LDH was dissolved and intercalated antibiotic released from ZnAl-CD in a molecular form, which led to a significant increase in the antibiotic’s solubility. Results showed that the release of drug from nanohybrid at pH 4.0, 6.8 and 7.4 was a sustained process.
Conclusion: This material might reduce side effects by the release of the drug in a controlled manner. However, it was found that the presence of Cl or PAM species in the release media has a negative impact on the release behavior. The weathering mechanism is responsible for the release of CD from the nanocomposite at pH 1.2, while the mechanism of anion exchange may be responsible for the release behavior at pH 4.0, 6.8 and 7.4. A number of kinetic models were chosen to gain more insights into the mechanisms of drug release. At pH 1.2, the zero-order model most satisfactorily explained the release kinetics of CD, while the release data of CD at pH 4.0, 6.8 and 7.4 were governed by Bhaskar kinetics.
Keywords: drug delivery system, ZnAl-CD LDH nanohybrid, hydrotalcite, antibiotic, drug release, kinetics
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