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Continuous wound infusion with chloroprocaine in a pig model of surgical lesion: drug absorption and effects on inflammatory response

Authors Allegri M, Bugada D, De Gregori M, Avanzini MA, De Silvestri A, Petroni A, Sala A, Filisetti C, Icaro Cornaglia A, Cobianchi L

Received 18 April 2017

Accepted for publication 1 August 2017

Published 31 October 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2515—2524

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S139856

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon

Massimo Allegri,1,2 Dario Bugada,1–3 Manuela De Gregori,2,4 Maria A Avanzini,5 Annalisa De Silvestri,6 Anna Petroni,7 Angelo Sala,7,8 Claudia Filisetti,9–11 Antonia Icaro Cornaglia,12 Lorenzo Cobianchi13,14

1Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma 2SIMPAR Group (Study in Multidisciplinary PAin Research), 3Department of Anaesthesia and ICU, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, 4Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 5Laboratory of Transplant Immunology/Cell Factory, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, 6Clinical epidemiology and Biometrics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 7Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, 8I.B.I.M., C.N.R., Palermo, 9PhD School, University of Pavia, 10Department of Pediatric Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 11Department of Pediatric Surgery, “V. Buzzi” Children’s Hospital, Milan, 12Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, 13Department of Surgical, Clinical, Paediatric and Diagnostic Science, University of Pavia, 14General Surgery 1, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy

Abstract: Continuous wound infusion (CWI) may protect from inflammation, hyperalgesia and persistent pain. Current local anesthetics display suboptimal pharmacokinetic profile during CWI; chloroprocaine (CP) has ideal characteristics, but has never been tested for CWI. We performed an animal study to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile and anti-inflammatory effect of CP during CWI. A total of 14 piglets received an infusion catheter after pararectal laparotomy and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: 5 mL/h infusion of saline (group A), CP 1.5% (group B) and CP 0.5% (group C). Blood sampling was performed to assess absorption and systemic inflammation at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 102 and 108 hours. The wound and contralateral healthy abdominal wall were sampled for histological analyses. Absorption of CP from the site of infusion, evaluated as the plasmatic concentrations of CP and its metabolite, 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid (CABA), showed a peak during the first 6 hours, but both CP and its metabolite rapidly disappeared after stopping CP infusion. Local inflammation was reduced in groups B and C (CP-treated p < 0.001), in a CP dose-dependent fashion. While CP inhibited in a dose-dependent manner pig mononuclear cells (MNCs) in vitro proliferation to a polyclonal activator, no effect on systemic cytokines’ concentrations or on ex vivo monocytes’ responsiveness was observed, suggesting the lack of systemic effects, in line with the very short half-life of CP in plasma. CP showed a very good profile for use in CWI, with dose-dependent local anti-inflammatory effects, limited absorption and rapid clearance from the bloodstream upon discontinuation. No cytotoxicity or side effects were observed. CP, therefore, may represent an optimal choice for clinical CWI, adaptable to each patient’s need, and protective on wound inflammatory response (and hyperalgesia) after surgery.

Keywords: continuous wound infusion, pig model, chloroprocaine, pharmacokinetics, inflammation, postoperative pain

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