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Continual evolution of type 2 diabetes: an update on pathophysiology and emerging treatment options

Authors Cornell S

Received 8 May 2014

Accepted for publication 21 July 2014

Published 16 April 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 621—632


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Susan Cornell

Chicago College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, USA

Abstract: Diabetes is a complex and progressive disease that has a major societal and economic impact. The most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a multifactorial disease, the pathophysiology of which involves not only the pancreas but also the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidney. Novel therapies with mechanisms of action that are different from most existing drugs are emerging. One such class consists of compounds that inhibit renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, which is responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption by the kidneys. This new class of compounds improves glycemic control independently of insulin and promotes weight reduction, providing an additional tool to treat patients with T2DM. This review discusses the underlying pathophysiology of T2DM, clinical guidelines, and available and emerging treatment options, with particular emphasis on sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

Keywords: diabetes, hyperglycemia, oral antidiabetic therapies, pharmacotherapy, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2

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