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Consequences of circadian dysregulation on metabolism

Authors Cisse YM, Nelson R

Received 7 June 2016

Accepted for publication 8 July 2016

Published 8 September 2016 Volume 2016:6 Pages 55—63

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S100363

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Marc Hébert

Yasmine M Cissé, Randy J Nelson

Department of Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research Institute, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Group, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA

Abstract: Most organisms display endogenously produced rhythms in physiology and behavior of ~24 hours in duration. These rhythms, termed circadian rhythms, are entrained to precisely 24 hours by the daily extrinsic light–dark cycle. Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcriptional–translational feedback loop that is hierarchically expressed throughout the brain and body; the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is the master circadian oscillator at the top of the hierarchy. Precise timing of the circadian clocks is critical for many homeostatic processes, including energy regulation and metabolism. Many genes involved in metabolism display rhythmic oscillations. Because circadian rhythms are most potently synchronized with the external environment by light, exposure to light at night potentially disrupts circadian regulation. Other potential disruptors of circadian organization include night shift work, social jet lag, restricted sleep, and misaligned feeding. Each of these environmental conditions has been associated with metabolic changes and obesity. The goal of this review is to highlight how disruption of circadian organization, primarily due to night shift work and exposure to light at night, has downstream effects on metabolic function.

Keywords: circadian disruption, light at night, obesity, shift work

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