Conjunctival melanoma: a review of conceptual and treatment advances
Li-Anne Lim,1 Michele C Madigan,1,2 R Max Conway1
1Save Sight Institute, Clinical Ophthalmology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Abstract: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and identify recent advances in the classification and management of conjunctival melanoma (CM) for clinicians working in this field. English-based articles were identified using the MEDLINE® database, and additional cited works not detected in the initial search were also obtained. Articles were assessed according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence criteria. Review of the literature indicated that the current classification and management of CM is predominantly based upon primarily nonrandomized, single-institution, retrospective case series. While these studies provide the basis for the recent seventh edition of the tumor node metastasis staging classification, this classification more accurately reflects the current knowledge of prognostic factors for CM. Application of this revised classification system together with prospective trials will provide the opportunity for future consistent and comparable data collection across centers, and it will improve the quality of evidence upon which current classification and management of CM is based. Furthermore, the high risk of local recurrence with current standard management suggests that adjuvant therapy, particularly mitomycin C and/or brachytherapy, may improve outcomes regardless of clinical staging. Finally, the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy may have significant benefit for a select group of CM patients.
Keywords: adjuvant therapy, melanoma in situ, mitomycin C, metastases
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