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Congenital vascular anomalies: current perspectives on diagnosis, classification, and management

Authors Blei F, Bittman M

Received 21 September 2015

Accepted for publication 7 December 2015

Published 14 July 2016 Volume 2016:4 Pages 23—37

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JVD.S63244

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Yiqing Yang

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Rahmi Oklu


Francine Blei,1 Mark E Bittman2

1Vascular Anomalies Program, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, 2Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA

Abstract: The term "congenital vascular anomalies" encompasses those vascular lesions present at birth. Many of these lesions may be detected in utero. This review serves to apprise the readership of newly identified diagnoses and updated classification schemes. Attention is focused on clinical features, patterns of presentation, clinical manifestations and behavior, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities. It is an invigorating period for this field, with a surge in vascular anomalies-related basic and clinical research, genetics, pharmacology, clinical trials, and patient advocacy. A large number of professional conferences now include vascular anomalies in the agenda, and trainees in multiple specialties are gaining expertise in this discipline. We begin with a summary of classification schemes and introduce the updated classification adopted by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Disease entities are described, with liberal use of photographs, as many diagnoses can be established based on a thorough history and visual appearance and it is thus essential to develop a familiarity with diagnosis-specific physical features. Peripheral (non-central nervous system) vascular anomalies are the focus of this review. We focus on those entities in which diagnostic radiology is routinely used and accentuate when histologic confirmation is essential. We also underscore some differences in approach to the pediatric vs adolescent or adult patient. A list of Internet-based resources is included, with hyperlinks to informative sites. References are limited to seminal discoveries and review articles. We hope that our enthusiasm in writing this review will be shared by those who read this review.

Keywords: vascular anomalies, hemangiomas, vascular malformations, overgrowth syndromes

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