Comparison of risk factors between preterm and term infants hospitalized for severe respiratory syncytial virus in the Russian Federation
Katherine L Gooch1, Gerard F Notario1, Gregory Schulz1, Konstantin M Gudkov2, Katharina Buesch3, Hoa Khong4, Andrew Campbell1
1Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA; 2Abbott Laboratories LLC, Moscow, Russia; 3Abbott GmbH and Co, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 4Vcomtech, Inc, Calgary, AB, Canada
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Preterm birth, in addition to several demographic and environmental factors, increases the risk for development of severe RSV infection. The purpose of this study was to describe differences in risk factors and protective factors between preterm birth (up to 35 weeks’ gestational age) and term infants hospitalized for RSV lower respiratory tract infection in the Russian Federation during the 2008–2009 RSV season.
Methods: Infants up to two years of age hospitalized for a lower respiratory tract infection in Moscow, St Petersburg, and Tomsk were tested for RSV. Patient data, including risk factors and protective factors for RSV, were captured at admission. Differences in these factors were compared between preterm and term patients.
Results: A total of 519 infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection were included in the study. Of these, 197 infants (182 term and 15 preterm) tested positive for RSV. Of all hospitalizations, 51.7% (15/29) of preterm infants versus 37.1% (182/490) of term infants had confirmed RSV (P = 0.118). Among the RSV-positive patients, preterm infants were more likely to have a lower weight at admission (P = 0.050), be of multiple gestation (P < 0.001), have more siblings (P = 0.013), and have more siblings under the age of eight years (P < 0.007) compared with term patients. The preterm infants were less likely to be breastfed (P < 0.001) and more likely to have older mothers (P = 0.050).
Conclusion: Compared with term infants, RSV was a more prevalent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infection in preterm infants. Of infants hospitalized for RSV, preterm infants were more likely to have additional risk factors for severe RSV. These findings suggest that preterm infants may be exposed to a combination of more strongly interrelated risk factors for severe RSV than term infants.
Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, prematurity, protective risk factors, Russian Federation
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