Comparative analysis of the expected demands for nursing care services among older people from urban, rural, and institutional environments
Authors Borowiak E, Kostka J, Kostka T
Received 10 August 2014
Accepted for publication 27 September 2014
Published 2 February 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 405—412
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Ewa Borowiak,1,2,* Joanna Kostka,3,* Tomasz Kostka1
1Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 2Institute of Nursing, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Demand for nursing and social services may vary depending on the socio-demographic variables, health status, receipt of formal and informal care provided, and place of residence.
Objectives: To conduct a comparative analysis of the expectations of older people from urban, rural, and institutional environments concerning nursing care with respect to the care provided and elements of a comprehensive geriatric assessment.
Material and methods: The study comprised 2,627 individuals above the age of 65 years living in urban (n=935) and rural (n=812) areas as well as nursing homes (n=880).
Results: Family care was most often expected both in urban (56.6%) and rural (54.7%) environments, followed by care provided simultaneously by a family and nurse (urban – 18.8%; rural – 26.1%) and realized only by a nurse (urban – 24.6%; rural – 19.2%). Not surprisingly, nursing home residents most commonly expected nursing care (57.5%) but 33.1% preferred care provided by family or friends and neighbors. In the whole cohort of people living in the home environment (n=1,718), those living with family demonstrated willingness to use primarily care implemented by the family (62.0%), while respondents living alone more often expected nursing services (30.3%). In the logistic regression model, among the respondents living in the city, only the form of care already received determined the expectations for nursing care. Among the respondents living in the county, the presence of musculoskeletal disorders, better nutritional status, and current care provided by family decreased expectations for nursing care. Higher cognitive functioning, symptoms of depression, and living alone increased the willingness to obtain nursing care.
Conclusion: Older inhabitants of urban areas, rural areas, and those residing in institutions have different expectations for individual nursing care. Nearly 45% of seniors living in the community expect to obtain nursing care, while only 1.6% do not expect any social or nursing help. While the expectations for the provision of nursing care are significantly increased by living alone, they are decreased by having access to care provided by family. Support for families to take care of elderly relatives would appear to be essential for an effective nursing and social care system.
Keywords: aging, place of residence, comorbidities, comprehensive geriatric assessment, nursing services
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