Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children
Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,5
1Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Abstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children
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