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Combined Treatment of Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy for Urological Malignancies: Current Evidence and Clinical Considerations

Authors Lei H, Shi M, Xu H, Bai S, Xiong X, Wei Q, Yang L

Received 23 October 2020

Accepted for publication 23 January 2021

Published 24 February 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 1719—1731


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chien-Feng Li

Haoran Lei, Ming Shi, Hang Xu, Shengjiang Bai, Xingyu Xiong, Qiang Wei, Lu Yang

Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Lu Yang
Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86-18980606829
Fax +86-028-85422451

Abstract: Although it has always been believed that radiation has immunosuppressive effects, more and more preclinical and clinical trials have shown that the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has a potential synergistic effect to treat cancers including urological malignancies. When radiotherapy is combined with immunotherapy, improved prognosis has been observed in different urinary tumors. However, there is no standard treatment, such as the optimal dose/fractionation and the sequence of immunotherapy and radiotherapy. In this review, we discussed the effects of radiotherapy on the cancer immune system and emphasized the synergy of radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy. Although it has significantly improved the prognosis of tumors, there are still some unresolved questions about how to best use this combination in clinical practice. Ongoing trials will provide further information on the interaction of radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy, and are expected to guide clinical practice and improve clinical outcomes.

Keywords: radiotherapy, immunotherapy, urological malignancies, abscopal effect

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