Combination of Ginsenoside Rg1 and Astragaloside IV reduces oxidative stress and inhibits TGF-β1/Smads signaling cascade on renal fibrosis in rats with diabetic nephropathy
Received 16 April 2018
Accepted for publication 1 September 2018
Published 18 October 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 3517—3524
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Manfred Ogris
Na Du, Zhiping Xu, Mingyue Gao, Peng Liu, Bo Sun, Xia Cao
Department of Pharmacology, Jilin University, Jilin, Changchun, China
Introduction: Anti-oxidative stress and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling cascade are essential therapeutic strategies for diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of combination of Ginsenoside Rg1 and Astragaloside IV on oxidative stress and TGF-β1/Smads signaling in DN rats.
Materials and methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: N group, M group (streptozotocin [STZ], intraperitoneally), G group (STZ rats with Ginsenoside Rg1, intragastrically [ig]), A group (STZ rats with Astragaloside IV, ig) and C group (STZ rats with Ginsenoside Rg1 and Astragaloside IV, ig). The levels of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), serum creatinine (SCr) and urinary creatinine (UCr) were detected in all the groups. The left kidneys of the rats were harvested to detect the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2/3, Smad7 and CTGF by immunohistochemical staining, while the right kidneys were used to detect the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Smad7 and CTGF by real-time PCR.
Results: Rats in G group, A group and C group had lower level of MDA but higher levels of CAT, GSH-PX and T-AOC compared with rats in M group. Rats in C group showed the best anti-oxidative stress level. G group, A group and C group treatments significantly decreased the levels of BUN, SCr, β2-MG and UCr. In addition, C group treatment showed the best kidney protective effect. G group, A group and C group treatments significantly diminish ED both factor and mRNA overexpression of TGF-β1 and CTGF but increase Smad7 expression in kidney tissue.
Conclusion: The combination of Ginsenoside Rg1 and Astragaloside IV may potentially protect against DN by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting TGF-β1/Smads signaling cascade.
Keywords: Ginsenoside Rg1, Astragaloside IV, oxidative stress, TGF-β1/Smads, diabetic nephropathy
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