Colloidal plasmonic gold nanoparticles and gold nanorings: shape-dependent generation of singlet oxygen and their performance in enhanced photodynamic cancer therapy
Received 7 November 2017
Accepted for publication 24 January 2018
Published 5 April 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2065—2078
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Yamin Yang,1 Yue Hu,2 Henry Du,3 Lei Ren,4 Hongjun Wang5
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 2Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sciences, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA; 4Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA
Introduction: In recognition of the potentials of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer, it is desirable to further understand the shape-dependent surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties of various gold nanostructures and evaluate their performances in PDT.
Materials and methods: Monodispersed colloidal spherical solid Au NPs were synthesized by UV-assisted reduction using chloroauric acid and sodium citrate, and hollow gold nanorings (Au NRs) with similar outer diameter were synthesized based on sacrificial galvanic replacement method. The enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field distribution and their corresponding efficiency in enhancing singlet oxygen (1O2) generation of both gold nanostructures were investigated based on theoretical simulation and experimental measurements. Their shape-dependent SPR response and resulted cell destruction during cellular PDT in combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) were further studied under different irradiation conditions.
Results: With comparable cellular uptake, more elevated formation of 1O2 in 5-ALA-enabled PDT was detected with the presence of Au NRs than that with Au NPs under broadband light irradiation in both cell-free and intracellular conditions. As a result of the unique morphological attributes, exhibiting plasmonic effect of Au NRs was still achievable in the near infrared (NIR) region, which led to an enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PDT under NIR light irradiation.
Conclusion: Shape-dependent SPR response of colloidal Au NPs and Au NRs and their respective effects in promoting PDT efficiency were demonstrated in present study. Our innovative colloidal Au NRs with interior region accessible to surrounding photosensitizers would serve as efficient enhancers of PDT potentially for deep tumor treatment.
Keywords: gold nanoparticles, colloidal gold nanorings, surface plasmonic resonance, photodynamic therapy
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