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Cognitive impairment associated with locomotive syndrome in community-dwelling elderly women in Japan

Authors Nakamura M, Tazaki F, Nomura K, Takano T, Hashimoto M, Hashizume H, Kamei I

Received 24 May 2017

Accepted for publication 16 August 2017

Published 12 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1451—1457

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S142538

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker

Misa Nakamura,1 Fumie Tazaki,1 Kazuki Nomura,1 Taeko Takano,1 Masashi Hashimoto,1 Hiroshi Hashizume,2 Ichiro Kamei1

1Department of Rehabilitation, Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Kaizuka, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

Abstract: In our worldwide aging society, elderly people should maintain cognitive and physical function to help avoid health problems. Dementia is a major brain disease among elderly people, and is caused by cognitive impairment. The locomotive syndrome (LS) refers to a condition in which people require healthcare services because of problems associated with locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between cognitive impairment and LS. Study participants were 142 healthy elderly female volunteers living in a rural area in Japan. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A score of ≤26 points on the MMSE was used to indicate categorically defined poor cognitive performance (cognitive impairment). The LS was defined by a score ≥16 points, and non-LS as <16 points, on the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25). Twenty-one participants (14.8%) had an MMSE score ≤26, and 19.0% were found to have LS. Compared with the MMSE >26 group, the ≤26 group was significantly older, had a higher percentage of body fat, and a higher GLFS-25 score. Those with LS were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, a higher percentage of body fat, and a lower MMSE score. Participants in the LS group had higher odds of cognitive impairment than those without LS [odds ratio (OR) =3.08] by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age. Furthermore, participants with GLFS-25 scores ≥6 had higher odds of cognitive impairment than those with a GLFS-25 score <6 by logistic regression analysis adjusted for both age (OR =4.44), and age and percent body fat (OR =4.12). These findings suggest that a strong relationship exists between the early stage of decreased motor function and cognitive impairment.

Keywords: cognitive impairment, locomotive syndrome, Mini-Mental State Examination, 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale

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