Cognitive functioning enhancement in older adults: is there an advantage of multicomponent training over Nordic walking?
Received 8 April 2019
Accepted for publication 5 June 2019
Published 22 August 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1503—1514
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Jean-Jacques Temprado,1,2 Marine Julien-Vintrou,1,2 Elisa Loddo,1,2 Jérome Laurin,1,2 Rita Sleimen-Malkoun1,2
1Institut des Sciences du Mouvement, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France
Correspondence: Jean-Jacques Temprado
Aix-Marseille Université, Institut des Sciences du Mouvement, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, 163 Avenue de Luminy, BP 910, Marseille 13288, France
Tel +33 49 117 2272
Introduction: We compared Nordic walking training (NW) to a multicomponent training (MCT) program of an equivalent intensity, in older adults. Our main hypothesis was that MCT would result in larger effects on cognitive processes than NW.
Methods: Thirty-nine healthy older adults, divided into two groups (NW and MCT), took part in the study (17 males, 22 females, mean age =70.8±0.8 years). They were tested for cardiovascular fitness, motor fitness and cognitive performance during the two weeks preceding and following the 12-week training session (3 times/week), respectively. For both the NW and MCT interventions, the training sessions were supervised by a trainer. Heart rate of participants was monitored during the sessions and then used to make training loads as similar as possible between the two groups (TRaining IMPulse method).
Results: Results showed that training resulted in better performance for cardiovascular and motor fitness tests. Among these tests, only two revealed a significant difference between the two groups. The NW group progressed more than the MCT group in the 30 Seconds Chair Stand test, while in the One Leg Stance test, the MCT group progressed more. For the cognitive assessment, a significant effect of training was found for executive functions, spatial memory score, and information processing speed response time, with no differences between the two groups.
Conclusion: The study confirmed that physical exercise has a positive impact on cognitive processes with no advantage of MCT intervention over NW training. A possible reason is that NW intervention not only improved cardiovascular capacities, but also motor fitness, including coordination capacities.
Keywords: aerobic training, cognition, motor fitness, Nordic walking, multicomponent training, aging
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