Coagulopathy of Patients with COVID-19 is Associated with Infectious and Inflammatory Markers
Authors Long X, Zhang Z, Zou W, Ling J, Li D, Jing L, Yu S, Zou X, Bian Y, Wu W, Li S, Fang M
Received 18 June 2020
Accepted for publication 12 September 2020
Published 7 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1965—1975
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto
Xin Long,1,* Zhanguo Zhang,1,* Wenbin Zou,2,* Jianmin Ling,3 Donghui Li,3 Liang Jing,3 Shanshan Yu,3 Xiaojing Zou,3 Yi Bian,3 Wenjuan Wu,4 Shusheng Li,3 Minghao Fang3
1Hepatic Surgery Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Intensive Care Unit, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Intensive Care Unit, Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan 430023, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Minghao Fang Tel +86 15071157405
Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection activates coagulation and stimulates innate immune system. Little is known about coagulopathy and response of inflammation and infection in ICU patients with COVID-19. Derangement of coagulation and markers of infection and inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as their correlations were elucidated.
Methods: One hundred eight ICU patients with COVID-19 (28 survivors and 80 non-survivors) in Tongji hospital and Wuhan Jinyintan hospital, in Wuhan, China were included. Coagulation parameters, infectious and inflammatory markers were dynamically analysed. The correlation between coagulopathy of patients and infectious and inflammatory markers was verified.
Results: SARS-CoV-2-associated coagulopathy occurred in most cases of critical illness. Raised values of d-dimer and FDP were measured in all patients, especially in non-survivors, who had longer PT, APTT, INR, as well as TT, and lower PTA and AT compared to survivors. SIC and DIC mostly occurred in non-survivors. CRP, ESR, serum ferritin, IL-8, and IL-2R increased in all patients, and were much higher in non-survivors who had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10. D-dimer was positively associated with CRP, serum ferritin (p = 0.02), PCT (p < 0.001), and IL-2R (p = 0.007). SIC scores were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.006), PCT (p = 0.0007), IL-1β (p = 0.048), and IL-6 (p = 0.009). DIC scores were positively associated with CRP (p < 0.0001), ESR (p = 0.02), PCT (p < 0.0001), serum ferritin (p < 0.0001), IL-10 (p = 0.02), and IL-2R (p = 0.0005).
Conclusion: Prothrombotic state, SIC, and DIC are the characteristics of coagulation in ICU patients with COVID-19. CRP, ESR, serum ferritin, IL-8, IL-2R, IL-6, and PCT were stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. CRP, PCT, serum ferritin, and IL-2R indicate the coagulopathy severity of patients with COVID-19.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coagulopathy, markers of infection and inflammation, correlation
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