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Co-Occurrence of mcr-9 and blaNDM-1 in Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from a Patient with Bloodstream Infection

Authors Lin M, Yang Y, Yang Y, Chen G, He R, Wu Y, Zhong LL, El-Sayed Ahmed MAEG, Feng S, Shen C, Wen X, Huang J, Li H, Zheng X, Tian GB

Received 4 February 2020

Accepted for publication 16 April 2020

Published 12 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1397—1402


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Minmin Lin,1,* Yongqiang Yang,2– 4,* Yanxian Yang,2,3,* Guanping Chen,5 Ruowen He,2,3 Yiping Wu,2,3 Lan-Lan Zhong,2,3 Mohamed Abd El-Gawad El-Sayed Ahmed,2,3,6 Siyuan Feng,2,3 Cong Shen,2,3 Xin Wen,2,3 Jin Huang,1 Hongyu Li,7 Xiaobin Zheng,1 Guo-Bao Tian2,3

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, People’s Republic of China; 5Sun Yat-sen University School of Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Manufacturing, Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST), Cairo, 6th of October City, Egypt; 7Department of Laboratory, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Guo-Bao Tian; Xiaobin Zheng Email;

Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are potentially life-threatening related to poorer outcomes. Colistin is considered one of the last-resort treatments against human infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, emergence of strains from the blood that co-harboring mcr and carbapenem resistance genes were considered as a serious problem.
Purpose: In this study, two mcr-9-harboring MDR Enterobacter cloacae isolates BSI034 and BSI072 recovered from BSI patients were identified, one of which co-harbored mcr-9 and blaNDM-1. The genetic characteristics of the MDR plasmid needed to be clarified.
Methods: S1-PFGE and Southern blotting were conducted to determine the location of mcr-9. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to obtain the complete genome and plasmid sequences. The resistome and virulence genes of the strains, accompanied by the genetic characteristics of mcr-9- and blaNDM-1-harboring plasmids, were analyzed.
Results: Whole-genome sequencing showed that BSI034 harbored mcr-9-carrying IncHI2-type pBSI034-MCR9 and blaNDM-1-carrying IncX3-type pBSI034-NDM1. The 278,517 bp pBSI034-MCR9 carried mcr-9 along with the other 19 resistance genes. mcr-9 was flanked by IS 903B (1057 bp) and IS 26 (820 bp) in the same orientation. In addition to resistance genes, strain BSI034 also carried a chromosome-located Yersinia high-pathogenicity island, which harbored genes of yersiniabactin biosynthesis operon ybtSXQPAUTE, irp1/2, and fyuA.
Conclusion: We described the complete genome and mcr-9/blaNDM-1-co-harboring plasmid of E. cloacae from a BSI patient. Notable differences were observed within mosaic modules between pBSI034-MCR9 and other mcr-9-harboring plasmids due to extensive recombination via horizontal gene transfer.

Keywords: MDR, mcr-9, colistin, virulence genes

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