Co-exposure subacute toxicity of silica nanoparticles and lead acetate on cardiovascular system
Authors Feng L, Yang X, Shi Y, Liang S, Zhao T, Duan J, Sun Z
Received 24 August 2018
Accepted for publication 26 September 2018
Published 21 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7819—7834
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Mian Wang
Lin Feng,1,2 Xiaozhe Yang,1,2 Yanfeng Shi,1,2 Shuang Liang,1,2 Tong Zhao,1,2 Junchao Duan,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2
1Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China
Background: The harmful effects following the release of nanomaterials into environment are of great concern today.
Purpose: In this study, subacute effect due to co-exposure to low-dose silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and lead acetate (Pb) on cardiovascular system was detected in Sprague Dawley male rats.
Materials and Methods: Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of heart, aortic arch and abdominal aorta were detected. Blood routine and blood biochemistry examinations were used to show the changes of blood components. The fibrinolytic and plasmin factors, inflammation-related factors and myocardial-related enzyme in serum were analysised by ELISA and Western blot assay.
Results: Histopathological and ultrastructural examination of heart, aortic arch, and abdominal aorta showed that serious damage occurred in co-exposure group (n=6/group). Blood routine examination showed that leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia increased markedly, while changes in the erythrocyte count were not obvious in the co-exposure group. The expression of alanine transaminase (ALT) decreased obviously in co-exposure group, while no significant changes were noted in the expression of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the co-exposure group on blood biochemistry analysis. In addition, data from ELISA analysis showed that the levels of fibrinolytic and plasmin factors, including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and antithrombin III (AT III), were decreased, while those of human fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (D2D) increased significantly in the co-exposure group. Moreover, the myocardial-related enzyme in serum, tested by ELISA, and cardiovascular-related protein expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide, tested by Western blot assay, was increased in the heart. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was increased in heart tissue subjected to combined exposure, which was manifested by Western blot assay, while the protein levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) and endothelin 1 were (ET-1) elevated in blood vessels in the co-exposure group.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the major interactions involved in subacute toxicity due to co-exposure to low doses of SiNPs and Pb on cardiovascular system were expected to be additive and synergistic in nature. Co-exposure to SiNPs and Pb could aggravate the cardiovascular toxicity via endothelial damage, hypercoagulation, and cardiac injury in vivo.
Keywords: SiNPs, Pb, combined exposure, cardiovascular toxicity, in vivo
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