Co-Delivery Of Dihydroartemisinin And HMGB1 siRNA By TAT-Modified Cationic Liposomes Through The TLR4 Signaling Pathway For Treatment Of Lupus Nephritis
Received 25 June 2019
Accepted for publication 30 September 2019
Published 4 November 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 8627—8645
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Lu Diao,1,2 Jin Tao,2 Yiqi Wang,3 Ying Hu,1,2 Wenfei He1
1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100, People’s Republic of China; 3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311402, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Ying Hu
College of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College, No. 888, East Section, Yinxian Main Road, The Zone of Higher Education, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 5748822 2707
Fax +86 5748822 3023
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Ouhai District, Chashan Street, University Campus, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 0577 86699572
Background and purpose: Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an autoimmune disease caused by many factors. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication of SLE and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown the advantages of multi-targeted therapy for LN and that TLR4 signaling is a target of anti-LN drugs. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein with a proinflammatory cytokine activity, binds specifically to TLR4 to induce inflammation. We aimed to develop PEGylated TAT peptide-cationic liposomes (TAT-CLs) to deliver anti-HMGB1 siRNA and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) to increase LN therapeutic efficiency and explore their treatment mechanism.
Methods: We constructed the TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA delivery system using the thin film hydration method. The uptake and localization of Cy3-labeled siRNA were detected by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assays were used to detect glomerular mesangial cell proliferation. Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA evaluated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA.
Results: We constructed the TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA delivery system measuring approximately 140 nm with superior storage and serum stabilities. In vitro, it showed significantly greater uptake compared with unmodified liposomes and significant inhibition of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation. TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA inhibited NF-κB activation in a concentration-dependent manner. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA downregulated expression of HMGB1 mRNA and protein. TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA markedly diminished Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and subsequent activation of MyD88, IRAK4, and NF-κB.
Conclusion: TAT-CLs-DHA/siRNA may have the potential for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as LN mediated by the TLR4 signaling pathway.
Keywords: cationic liposome, HMGB1 siRNA, DHA, Toll-like receptor 4
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