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Clinical validation of immunoglobulin A nephropathy diagnosis in Swedish biopsy registers

Authors Jarrick S, Lundberg S, Welander A, Fored CM, Ludvigsson JF

Received 2 August 2016

Accepted for publication 17 October 2016

Published 31 January 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 67—73

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S118730

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Henrik Toft Sorensen

Simon Jarrick,1,2 Sigrid Lundberg,3,4 Adina Welander,5,6 C Michael Fored,6 Jonas F Ludvigsson2,7,8

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, 2Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, 3Department of Nephrology, Karolinska University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 5Boston Consulting Group, 6Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, 7Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Aims: The aims of this study were to validate the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in Swedish biopsy registers against patient charts and to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with a biopsy indicating IgAN.
Methods: This is a population-based cohort study. Out of 4,069 individuals with a renal biopsy consistent with IgAN (biopsies performed in 1974–2011), this study reviewed patient charts of a random subset of 127 individuals. Clinical and biopsy characteristics at the time of biopsy were evaluated, and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Out of 127 individuals with a renal biopsy consistent with IgAN, 121 had a likely or confirmed clinical diagnosis of IgAN, primary or secondary to Henoch–Schönlein purpura, yielding a PPV of 95% (95% CI =92%–99%). The median age at biopsy was 39 years (range: 4–79 years); seven patients (6%) were <16 years. The male to female ratio was 2.8:1. The most common causes for consultation were macroscopic hematuria (n=37; 29%), screening (n=33; 26%), and purpura (n=14, 11%). In patients with available data, the median creatinine level was 104 µmol/L (range 26–986 µmol/L, n=110) and glomerular filtration rate 75 mL/min/1.73m² (range 5–173 mL/min/1.73m², n=114). Hypertension was noted in 59 (46%) individuals. IgA deposits were reported in 97% of the biopsy records (n=123), mesangial hypercellularity in 76% (n=96), C3 deposits in 89% (n=113), and C1q deposits in 12% (n=15).
Conclusion: A histologic diagnosis of IgAN has a high PPV for a diagnosis of IgAN confirmed by review of patient charts.

Keywords: general population-based, histopathology, IgA nephropathy, kidney, renal disease, validation studies

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