Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 12

Clinical usefulness of hemoencephalography beyond the neurofeedback

Authors Serra-Sala M, Timoneda-Gallart C, Pérez-Álvarez F

Received 31 January 2016

Accepted for publication 23 March 2016

Published 11 May 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 1173—1180


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Mireia Serra-Sala,1–3 Carme Timoneda-Gallart,1–3 Frederic Pérez-Álvarez1,2,4

1Fundació Carme Vidal NeuroPsicoPedagogia, 2Institut Recerca Qualitat de Vida Universitat de Girona, 3Facultat Educació Psychology University of Girona, 4Pediatric and Behavioral Neurology, University Hospital Doctor Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain

Aim: Hemoencephalography (HEG) is an emerging procedure for clinical application in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disorders, regardless of age. It is available to any research group for its relative simplicity and low cost and is a useful tool for assessing prefrontal-dependent functions. Older teenagers pose peculiarities in the prefrontal maturation, and we aim to establish HEG patterns that might have clinical applicability.
Methods: The HEG patterns of 70 university students (56 women and 14 men, 21–48 years old, mean 31.84, SD 10.65, standard error of mean 0.31) were compared with those of 59 adolescents – 13–14-year-old secondary education students, 28 females and 31 males. The HEG patterns were obtained in response to the observation of shocking, unpleasant, and pleasant pictures. We use one-way and two-way analysis of variance to disentangle the differences between groups. All effects were analyzed with F-tests.
Results: In all cases, university students and adolescents showed a decrease in prefrontal activity, indicative of differences in the emotional inner networks between groups, which are responsible for security–insecurity processing. Compared with university students, adolescents showed statistically significant differences in decreased activity in very unpleasant (shocking) tests that demand increased security–insecurity processing. Adolescents showed lower decrease. In addition, adolescents, compared with university subjects, did not show statistically significantly decreased HEG activity compared with the baseline in very unpleasant tests.
Conclusion: Teens showed distinguishable patterns of HEG, which were consistent with the cognitive emotional dysregulation in cognition and emotion interaction, that is, exterior network versus internal network interactions. Disability in regulation (modulation) of emotional response to negative emotional stimuli (fear of insecurity) in adolescence is an indicator of possible future clinical and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety with high incidence of onset at this critical age and frequent comorbidity in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. HEG pattern might be a useful marker to define maturation and future possible mental dysfunctions.

Keywords: behavior, adolescents, development, psychiatry, diagnosis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]