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Clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-6 in cancer metastasis to bone: potential of anti-IL-6 therapies

Authors Tawara K, Oxford JT, Jorcyk C

Published 18 May 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 177—189

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S18101

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


Ken Tawara, Julia T Oxford, Cheryl L Jorcyk
Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA

Abstract: Metastatic events to the bone occur frequently in numerous cancer types such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal carcinomas, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is frequently upregulated and is implicated in the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to bone. IL-6 is able to activate various cell signaling cascades that include the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) pathway, and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Activation of these pathways may explain the ability of IL-6 to mediate various aspects of normal and pathogenic bone remodeling, inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, and pro-tumorigenic effects. This review article will discuss the role of IL-6: 1) in bone metabolism, 2) in cancer metastasis to bone, 3) in cancer prognosis, and 4) as potential therapies for metastatic bone cancer.

Keywords: interleukin-6, bone metastasis, cancer, osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast, osteoblast

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