Clinical potential of novel therapeutic targets in breast cancer: CDK4/6, Src, JAK/STAT, PARP, HDAC, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways
Sarah R Hosford,1 Todd W Miller1,2
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA
Abstract: Breast cancers expressing estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, or the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) proto-oncogene account for approximately 90% of cases, and treatment with antiestrogens and HER2-targeted agents has resulted in drastically improved survival in many of these patients. However, de novo or acquired resistance to antiestrogen and HER2-targeted therapies is common, and many tumors will recur or progress despite these treatments. Additionally, the remaining 10% of breast tumors are negative for estrogen receptor a, progesterone receptor, and HER2 (“triple-negative”), and a clinically proven tumor-specific drug target for this group has not yet been identified. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic targets in breast cancer is of vital clinical importance. Preclinical studies elucidating the mechanisms driving resistance to standard therapies have identified promising targets including cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, poly adenosine diphosphate–ribose polymerase, Src, and histone deacetylase. Herein, we discuss the clinical potential and status of new therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
Keywords: palbociclib, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin
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