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Clinical management of tuberous sclerosis complex over the lifetime of a patient

Authors Frost M, Hulbert J

Received 7 May 2014

Accepted for publication 20 August 2014

Published 26 August 2015 Volume 2015:6 Pages 139—146


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Laurens Holmes, Jr

Michael Frost,1 John Hulbert2

1Minnesota Epilepsy Group, PA, St Paul, MN, USA; 2Urologic Physicians, PA, Edina, MN, USA

Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by nonmalignant tumors (hamartomas) that can occur in various organ systems, including the brain, kidneys, lungs, skin, eyes, and heart. Clinical manifestations of TSC can occur at any age, thereby making the diagnosis difficult. No typical disease presentation is known, and the clinical presentation usually differs between pediatric and adult patients. Furthermore, variable penetrance of the genetic mutation causes a range of disease severity from very mild to severe, and affected individuals can go undetected for years because many of the clinical manifestations of TSC lack specificity. Once a diagnosis is made, TSC management strategies should be tailored to address the symptoms and risks most relevant to the age of the patient. Improved understanding of the genetic basis of TSC and of the central issue of mTOR overactivation has led to use of pharmacotherapies such as the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of TSC disease. In Phase II and III studies, everolimus has demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of both brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) and renal (angiomyolipoma) manifestations associated with TSC. It is important to bear in mind that TSC is a lifelong condition, and for those diagnosed as children, a continuum of care will be needed as they transition from pediatric to adult health services. Clearly identifying the likely differences among diagnosis, monitoring, and management of pediatric and adult patients with TSC is an important step in enabling efficiencies to be maximized without compromising the care provided to patients.

Keywords: mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, mTOR treatment, treatment strategies

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