Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review

Authors Alenazy M, Mosadomi H

Received 15 July 2013

Accepted for publication 11 September 2013

Published 11 December 2013 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 27—31


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Mohammed S Alenazy,1 Hezekiah A Mosadomi2,3

Restorative Dentistry Department, 2Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department, 3Research Center, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Background: Unknown cell-culture contaminants were described by Kajander and Ciftçioğlu in 1998. These contaminants were called nanobacteria initially and later calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs). Their exact nature is unclear and controversial. CNPs have unique and unusual characteristics, which preclude placing them into any established evolutionary branch of life.
Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to assess published data concerning CNPs since 1998 in general and in relation to dental diseases in particular.
Materials and methods: The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) electronic and manual searches were conducted. Nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles were used as keywords. The search yielded 135 full-length papers. Further screening of the titles and abstracts that followed the review criteria resulted in 43 papers that met the study aim.
Conclusion: The review showed that the existence of nanobacteria is still controversial. Some investigators have described a possible involvement of CNPs in pulpal and salivary gland calcifications, as well as the possible therapeutic use of CNPs in the treatment of cracked and/or eroded teeth.

Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, sialolith, pulp stone, enamel repair

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]