Clinical Evaluation for the Role of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Combination with D-Dimer and Wells Score Probability Test to Predict the Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis Among Cancer Patients
Received 8 May 2020
Accepted for publication 7 August 2020
Published 9 September 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 587—594
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Budi Setiawan,1 Rosalina Rosalina,2 Eko Adhi Pangarsa,1 Damai Santosa,1 Catharina Suharti1
1Division of Hematology-Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia
Correspondence: Damai Santosa
Division of Hematology-Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University/Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia
Fax +622 48453201
Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent complication in cancer patients and is the second leading cause of death. The high level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant that induces tissue factor (TF) expression in monocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. The CRP level positively correlates with the incidence, extension, and volume of thrombus. TF expression triggers the coagulation system including the formation of thrombin and circulating fibrin such as prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1 + 2) and D-dimer.
Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, D-dimer, and Wells score combination to predict the incidence of DVT on clinically suspected DVT (Wells score ≥ 2) cancer patients.
Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study on a diagnostic test to determine the diagnostic value of hs-CRP and D-dimer for early detection of DVT on clinically suspected DVT (Wells score ≥ 2) cancer patients. It was conducted in Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang Indonesia on 35 subjects. The diagnosis of DVT was confirmed by color duplex sonography. The diagnostic accuracy of combination of hs-CRP, D-dimer, and Wells score was analyzed by logistic regression.
Results: DVT was confirmed in 10 subjects (28,6%). The cut-off point of hs-CRP levels for probable DVT was ≥ 51.05 mg/L and for D-dimer was ≥ 5030 μg/L. The median levels of both variables were higher in the subjects with DVT compared with the subjects without DVT, but it was not statistically significant. The combination of hs-CRP (≥ 51.05 mg/L), D-dimer (≥ 5030 μg/L), and Wells score ≥ 3 had the high accuracy (94.1%) to predict the incidence of DVT compared with hs-CRP (65.0%), D-dimer (54.7%), and combination of hs-CRP and D-dimer (71.0%).
Conclusion: The combination of hs-CRP (≥ 51.05 mg/L), D-dimer (≥ 5030 μg/L), and Wells score ≥ 3 can predict the incidence of DVT in cancer.
Keywords: hs-CRP, D-dimer, Wells score, deep vein thrombosis, cancer
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