Clinical efficacy and safety of HX575, a biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietin, in the management of anemia
Ivo Abraham,1,2,3 Karen MacDonald2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, and Center for Health Outcomes and PharmoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 3Matrix45, Tucson, Arizona, USA
Abstract: Since the expiration of the patent for epoetin alfa in Europe in 2004, the European Medicines Agency has approved three biosimilar erythropoietins. Using the European Medicines Agency’s European Public Assessment Reports and scientific publications, we review the evidence regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of HX575 (Sandoz/Novartis) relative to the originator product Eprex/Erypo (Johnson & Johnson). Clinical efficacy is assessed as a function of therapeutic equivalence of a biosimilar and originator product, while safety is evaluated in terms of immunogenicity, venous thromboembolism, and mortality. Five studies that examined chronic renal failure and oncology populations are reviewed. In the renal setting, these studies include a randomized controlled trial on Hb maintenance in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis, a randomized safety trial in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet requiring renal replacement therapy, and a post-approval saftey commitment study. Studies in the cancer setting include a clinical validation study in patients with solid tumors receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy and a retrospective clinical audit of Binocrit in routine clinical practice. Based on available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of treatment with HX575 are likely to be similar to those of the originator product Eprex/Erypo. Both products can be considered interchangeable in the management of anemia in the approved indications, and patients transferred from the reference product to the biosimilar product are expected to show the same efficacy and safety outcomes. There is no evidence of the interchangeability of HX575 with other biosimilar or originator erythropoietins other than Eprex/Erypo. In keeping with European Medicines Agency guidance about traceability, it is recommended that clinicians document the product prescribed by its commercial name, especially when switching patients from an originator to a biosimilar or vice versa.
Keywords: Biosimilar, biosimilar pharmaceuticals, efficacy, erythropoietin, recombinant proteins, safety
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