Back to Journals » International Journal of General Medicine » Volume 13

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 Infection Outside Intensive Care

Authors Moledina SM, Maini AA, Gargan A, Harland W, Jenney H, Phillips G, Thomas K, Chauhan D, Fertleman M

Received 17 August 2020

Accepted for publication 19 October 2020

Published 17 November 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1157—1165


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Saadiq M Moledina,* Alexander A Maini,* Alice Gargan, William Harland, Heloise Jenney, Georgina Phillips, Kate Thomas, Devkishan Chauhan, Michael Fertleman

From the Cutrale Perioperative & Ageing Group, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Saadiq M Moledina
St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, Praed Street, Paddington, London W2 1NY, UK
Tel +44 02033126666

Background/Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all aspects of inpatient hospital medicine with patients admitted from level 1 (general medical wards) to level 3 (intensive care). Often, there are subtle physiological differences in these cohorts of patients. In particular, in intensive care, patients tend to be younger and have increased disease severity. Data, to date, has combined outcomes from medical and intensive care cohorts, or looked exclusively at intensive care. We looked solely at the level 1 (medical) cohort to identify their clinical characteristics and predictors of outcome.
Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to a central London teaching hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 from 23rd March to 7th April 2020 identified from the hospital electronic database. Any patients who required level 2 or 3 care were excluded.
Results: A total of 229 patients were included for analysis. Increased age and frailty scores were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Reduced renal function and elevated troponin blood levels are also associated with poor outcome. Baseline observations showed that increased oxygen requirement was predictive for mortality. A trend of increased mortality with lower diastolic blood pressure was noted. Lymphopenia was not shown to be related to mortality.
Conclusion: Urea and creatinine are the best predictors of mortality in the level 1 cohort. Unlike previous intensive care data, lymphopenia is not predictive of mortality. We suggest that these factors be considered when prognosticating and for resource allocation for the treatment and escalation of care for patients with COVID-19 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19, mortality, frailty, ICU, renal dysfunction, lymphopenia

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]