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Clinical characteristics and long-term visual outcome of severe phenotypes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

Authors Mohabati D, van Rijssen TJ, van Dijk EHC, Luyten GPM, Missotten TO, Hoyng CB, Yzer S, Boon CJF

Received 28 December 2017

Accepted for publication 23 February 2018

Published 7 June 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1061—1070

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S160956

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Danial Mohabati,1,2 Thomas J van Rijssen,1 Elon HC van Dijk,1 Gregorius PM Luyten,1 Tom O Missotten,3 Carel B Hoyng,4 Suzanne Yzer,3 Camiel JF Boon1,5

1Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rotterdam Ophthalmic Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Ophthalmology, The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate disease onset and disease progression in patients with severe chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC).
Patients and methods: The medical records of 143 cCSC patients (199 eyes) were reviewed. All cases had visual complaints for >6 months and showed signs of a severe disease phenotype on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). Clinical presentation at onset was evaluated, together with disease progression on multimodal imaging and final treatment outcome.
Results: Twenty-eight cases (14%) had a documented history of an acute episode of CSC, whereas 145 cases (73%) showed pre-existing features of chronicity already at first presentation. The first clinical presentation could not be evaluated in 13% of cases. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 70 ± 18 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters at onset and 70 ± 22 ETDRS letters at final visit (p = 0.770). Among all studied cases, 173 eyes (87%) were treated, which resulted in complete resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF) in 76% of eyes at final visit. In eyes with fluorescein angiographic follow-up, the area of diffuse atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) abnormalities (diffuse atrophic RPE alterations [DARA]) had increased significantly in 43 eyes (68%) at final visit.
Conclusion: CSC encompasses a clinical spectrum that includes a range of severe phenotypes, in which retinal abnormalities tend to be progressive. Nevertheless, the long-term visual acuity may remain fairly stable with treatment. Few patients with severe chronic CSC have a history of acute CSC, which could indicate that there may be pathogenetic differences between these 2 CSC variants.

Keywords: chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, long-term outcome, severity, treatment, photodynamic therapy, posterior cystoid retinal degeneration

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