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Clinical benefit of ertapenem compared to flomoxef for the treatment of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia

Authors Lee C, Chen I, Li CC, Chien C

Received 21 July 2017

Accepted for publication 15 December 2017

Published 23 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 257—266


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Chen-Hsiang Lee,1,2 I-Ling Chen,3 Chia-Chin Li,4 Chun-Chih Chien4

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial, Hospital, 2Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Objectives: Cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CE) infections are intractable, with limited treatment options. Though carbapenems are frequently prescribed for CE infections, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is of huge concern. Flomoxef is effective against CE in vitro, and some clinical data on its demonstrated effectiveness against CE bloodstream infections (BSIs) exists.
Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective study on adults with BSI caused by flomoxef-susceptible CE to investigate the efficacy of flomoxef compared with that of ertapenem. The outcome was evaluated with propensity score-based matching and logistic regression analysis.
Results: Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients treated with flomoxef (n = 58) or ertapenem (n = 188) were compared. In the multivariate analysis, severe sepsis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–12.78; p = 0.03), high BSI mortality score (AOR = 5.59; 95% CI, 2.37–13.21; p < 0.01), ultimately or rapidly fatal comorbidity (AOR = 10.60; 95% CI, 3.43–32.75; p < 0.01), and pneumonia (AOR = 10.11; 95% CI, 3.43–29.81; p < 0.01) were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Using propensity scores, 58 flomoxef-treated patients were matched to 116 ertapenem-treated patients. There were no intergroup differences in BSI severity, comorbidity, or BSI sources. The 28-day mortality rates (20.7% vs 13.8%, p = 0.28) did not differ significantly. However, hospitalization length was shorter in the ertapenem group (10.2 ± 8.5 vs. 14.6 ± 9.4 days, p < 0.01).
Conclusion: Although similar outcomes were observed between the groups, ertapenem therapy was associated with a shorter hospitalization time in adults after CE BSI.

Keywords: bacteremia, cephamycin, ESBL, flomoxef, outcomes, MIC

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