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Clinical applications of dendritic cells–cytokine-induced killer cells mediated immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: an up-to-date meta-analysis

Authors Zhang YC, Zhang X, Zhang AQ, Li K, Qu K

Received 7 June 2017

Accepted for publication 4 August 2017

Published 23 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 4173—4192


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Carlos E Vigil

Yucai Zhang,1 Xiaorui Zhang,1 Anqi Zhang,2 Ke Li,2 Kai Qu3

1Department of Health, 2Department of Central Laboratory, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Taishan Medical University, Liaocheng, Shandong, 3Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China

Purpose: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of dendritic cells–cytokine-induced killer (DC–CIK) cells immunotherapy in treating pancreatic cancer (PC) patients.
Methods: Data were collected from published articles of clinical trials. Databases including Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI were searched. The main outcome measures in this research included the overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), patients’ quality of life (QoL), immune function, and adverse events. Comparative analysis was conducted between DC–CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy (combined therapy) and chemotherapy alone.
Results: This analysis covered 14 trials with 1,088 PC patients involved. The combined therapy showed advantages over chemotherapy alone in ORR (odds ratio [OR] =1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.20–2.38, P=0.003), DCR (OR =2.33, 95% CI =1.63–3.33, P<0.00001), OS (1-year OS, OR =3.61, 95% CI =2.41–5.40, P<0.00001; 3-year OS, OR =2.65, 95% CI =1.56–4.50, P=0.0003) and patients’ QoL (P<0.01) with statistical significance. After immunotherapy, lymphocyte subsets’ percentages of CD3+ (P<0.00001), CD4+ (P=0.01), CD3+CD56+ (P<0.00001), and cytokine levels of IFN-γ (P<0.00001) were significantly increased, and the percentages of CD4+CD25+CD127low (P<0.00001) and levels of IL-4 (P<0.0001) were significantly decreased, whereas analysis on CD8+ (P=0.59) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P=0.64) did not show a significant difference.
Conclusion: The combination of DC–CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy is effective for PC treatment, indicated by prolonging the PC patients’ survival time, which benefit from reconstructed immune function of patients.

Keywords: cytokine-induced killer cells, dendritic cells, pancreatic cancer, immunotherapy, meta-analysis

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