Back to Journals » Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology » Volume 13

Clinical and Onychoscopic Features of Benign and Malignant Conditions in Longitudinal Melanonychia in the Thai Population: A Comparative Analysis

Authors Kungvalpivat P, Rojhirunsakool S, Chayavichitsilp P, Suchonwanit P, Wichayachakorn CT, Rutnin S

Received 21 September 2020

Accepted for publication 9 November 2020

Published 19 November 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 857—865

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S283112

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg


Pintusorn Kungvalpivat,1 Salinee Rojhirunsakool,1,2 Pamela Chayavichitsilp,1 Poonkiat Suchonwanit,1 Chanitwan T Wichayachakorn,1 Suthinee Rutnin1

1Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Skin Center, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence: Suthinee Rutnin
Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
Tel +66-2-2011141
Fax +66-2-201-1211 Ext 4
Email suthinee.rutnin@gmail.com

Background: Longitudinal melanonychia can arise from many underlying conditions, both benign and malignant. Practitioners tend to be reluctant to perform a biopsy of this condition due to procedure-related pain and the possibility of permanent nail dystrophy. Onychoscopy has become a useful tool to provide a provisional diagnosis and assist in deciding on a nail biopsy.
Objective: To investigate and differentiate the clinical and onychoscopic features of subungual melanoma (SUM)/subungual melanoma in situ (SMIS) and other benign melanocytic conditions (BM).
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 32 cases of longitudinal melanonychia were examined, and baseline characteristics were recorded. Onychoscopic pictures were taken by handheld dermoscopy with 10x and 50x magnification. A biopsy was then performed in each case, and a pathological diagnosis was obtained.
Results: Of the 32 cases, 6 were diagnosed with SMIS and 26 with BM (21 simple lentigines, 5 junctional nevi). The median age was significantly higher among the SMIS group (56 vs 31 years) (p = 0.034). Regarding onychoscopic findings, cases with SMIS were significantly associated with a greater band width percentage (p = 0.014), multicolor presentation (p = 0.005), the presence of granular pigmentation (p = 0.034), and micro-Hutchinson’s sign (p = 0.015). In addition, subungual hyperkeratosis, a newly recognized onychoscopic feature, was more significantly associated with SMIS in comparison to BM (p = 0.002).
Conclusion: Onychoscopy provides useful information to aid in the differential diagnosis of longitudinal melanonychia. From our study, onychoscopy can be utilized to assist in making a decision whether to perform a biopsy in patients with longitudinal melanonychia suspicious of malignant melanocytic conditions.

Keywords: longitudinal melanonychia, subungual melanoma, subungual melanoma in situ, onychoscopy, dermoscopy

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]