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Clinical Analysis of Bloodstream Infections During Agranulocytosis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors Cao W, Guan L, Li X, Zhang R, Li L, Zhang S, Wang C, Xie X, Jiang Z, Wan D, Chi X

Received 7 September 2020

Accepted for publication 1 January 2021

Published 19 January 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 185—192


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Weijie Cao,1,* Lina Guan,1,* Xiaoning Li,1 Ran Zhang,1 Li Li,1 Suping Zhang,1 Chong Wang,1 Xinsheng Xie,1 Zhongxing Jiang,1 Dingming Wan,1 Xiaohui Chi2

1Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Weijie Cao Email

Purpose: To explore the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients who develop agranulocytosis fever after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This study also provides a basis for the clinical treatment of BSI.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 397 allo-HSCT patients in the Department of Hematology of our hospital was conducted from January 2013 to December 2017 to analyze the incidence of BSI, the distribution and types of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance rates. We also determined whether various parameters are risk factors to BSI, including the patient age, gender, disease type, transplantation method, stem cell source, pre-treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), and agranulocytosis time.
Results: Among the 397 allo-HSCT patients, 294 had a fever during the period of agranulocytosis, and 52 cases were found to have BSI. The incidence of BSI in patients with agranulocytosis fever was 17.7% (52/294). Among the 60 pathogens detected, 43 (71.67%), 10 (16.67%), and 7 (11.67%) were Gram negative strains, Gram positive strains, and fungi, respectively. The most common bacteria were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The detection rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was 40.0%, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) accounted for 17.9%. Single-factor and multi-factor analyses showed that pre-treatment with ATG, agranulocytosis time (≥ 21 days), and stem cell source were risk factors for BSI.
Conclusion: We found that in our hospital, BSIs in allo-HSCT patients are mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria, and the resistance rate to carbapenem drugs is high. Pre-treatment with ATG, agranulocytosis time (≥ 21 days), and stem cell source are risk factors for BSI.

Keywords: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, agranulocytosis, BSI, pathogenic bacteria, risk factors

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