Chronic chemotherapy with paclitaxel nanoparticles induced apoptosis in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo
Authors Zhao X, Fan J, Wu P, Wei C, Chen Q, Ming Z, Yan J, Yang L
Received 19 September 2018
Accepted for publication 4 January 2019
Published 19 February 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1299—1309
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Mian Wang
Xuefeng Zhao,1,2 Juan Fan,1 Peng Wu,1 Chengming Wei,2 Qiongying Chen,3 Zhi Ming,2 Jun Yan,2 Linglin Yang1
1Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China; 2Department of Oncology, Zigong 1st People’s Hospital, Zigong 643000, China; 3Department of Oncology, Zigong 3rd People’s Hospital, Zigong 643000, China
Aim: Paclitaxel (PTX) is an effective antitumor drug. Previous research demonstrated that paclitaxel nanoparticles (PTX-NPs) exhibited the greatest antitumor effect at 15 hours after light onset (15 HALO), but the mechanism in chronic chemotherapy is still unknown. In our study, we investigated whether PTX-NPs regulated Period2 (Per2) during chronic chemotherapy to induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: To improve the antitumor effect and reduce organ damage induced by PTX treatment, PTX-NPs were prepared using a film dispersion method. Then, A549 cells were treated with PTX-NPs at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 HALO. An annexin/PI V-FITC apoptosis kit was measured for apoptosis, and PI was analyzed for cell cycle. The relative mechanism was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Tumor volume and weight were measured to evaluate the antitumor effect of the PTX-NPs, and H&E staining was performed to assess organ damage.
Results: Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that PTX-NPs blocked cell cycle in G2 phase and that the ratio of cell death was significantly increased in A549 cells, while the ratios of cells in G2 phase and of apoptotic cells were highest at 15 HALO. Evaluation of in vivo antitumor activity revealed that PTX-NPs inhibited tumor growth and decreased tumor weight at 15 HALO. RT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that PTX-NPs upregulated Per2 mRNA and protein expression, and the highest Per2 expression was observed at 15 HALO in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, Bax mRNA and protein expression was upregulated, while Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression was downregulated after PTX-NPs treatment in vivo. Moreover, H&E staining revealed that PTX-NPs reduced liver damage at 15 HALO.
Conclusion: PTX-NPs exhibited the most effective antitumor activity and reduced liver damage at 15 HALO through upregulation of Per2 expression to induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.
Keywords: paclitaxel nanoparticles, chronic chemotherapy, Per2, apoptosis, lung cancer
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