Chitosan Coating of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Improved Metformin Release and Osteoblast Differentiation
Received 8 February 2020
Accepted for publication 6 June 2020
Published 22 June 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 4471—4481
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas Webster
Amir Hashemi,1 Masoumeh Ezati,2 Javad Mohammadnejad,3 Behzad Houshmand,4 Shahab Faghihi5
1Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-1561, Iran; 2Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Research Center, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran 14965/161, Iran; 3Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-1561, Iran; 4Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19857-17443, Iran; 5Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Research Center, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran 14965/161, Iran
Correspondence: Javad Mohammadnejad; Shahab Faghihi Tel +9821 8609-3078
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Background: Ineffective integration has been recognized as one of the major causes of early orthopedic failure of titanium-based implants. One strategy to address this problem is to develop modified titanium surfaces that promote osteoblast differentiation. This study explored titanium surfaces modified with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) capable of localized drug delivery into bone and enhanced osteoblast cell differentiation.
Materials and Methods: Briefly, TiO2 NTs were subjected to anodic oxidation and loaded with Metformin, a widely used diabetes drug. To create surfaces with sustainable drug-eluting characteristics, TiO2 NTs were spin coated with a thin layer of chitosan. The surfaces were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The surfaces were then exposed to mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) to evaluate cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, and morphology on the modified surfaces.
Results: A noticeable increase in drug release time (3 days vs 20 days) and a decrease in burst release characteristics (85% to 7%) was observed in coated samples as compared to uncoated samples, respectively. Chitosan-coated TiO2 NTs exhibited a considerable enhancement in cell adhesion, proliferation, and genetic expression of type I collagen, and alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to uncoated TiO2 NTs.
Conclusion: TiO2 NT surfaces with a chitosan coating are capable of delivering Metformin to a bone site over a sustained period of time with the potential to enhance MSCs cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.
Keywords: titania nanotubes, titanium, osteogenic differentiation, anodization, mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells, MSCs
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