Characterization of TLR-induced inflammatory responses in COPD and control lung tissue explants
Authors Pomerenke A, Lea S, Herrick S, Lindsay M, Singh D
Received 27 January 2016
Accepted for publication 16 March 2016
Published 29 September 2016 Volume 2016:11(1) Pages 2409—2417
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Anna Pomerenke,1 Simon R Lea,1 Sarah Herrick,2 Mark A Lindsay,3 Dave Singh1
1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, 2Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, 3Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Purpose: Viruses are a common cause of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They activate toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3, 7, and 8, leading to a pro-inflammatory response. We have characterized the responses of TLR3 and TLR7/8 in lung tissue explants from COPD patients and control smokers.
Methods: We prepared lung whole tissue explants (WTEs) from patients undergoing surgery for confirmed or suspected lung cancer. In order to mimic the conditions of viral infection, we used poly(I:C) for TLR3 stimulation and R848 for TLR7/8 stimulation. These TLR ligands were used alone and in combination. The effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) neutralization and dexamethasone on TLR responses were examined. Inflammatory cytokine release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: WTEs from COPD patients released higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with WTEs from smokers. Activation of multiple TLRs led to a greater than additive release of TNFα and CCL5. TNFα neutralization and dexamethasone treatment decreased cytokine release.
Conclusion: This WTE model shows an enhanced response of COPD compared with controls, suggesting an increased response to viral infection. There was amplification of innate immune responses with multiple TLR stimulation.
Keywords: COPD, poly(I:C), R848, cytokines, lung explant
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