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Characterization of Optimized TiO2 Nanotubes Morphology for Medical Implants: Biological Activity and Corrosion Resistance

Authors Nogueira RP, Deuzimar Uchoa J, Hilario F, Santana-Melo GDF, de Vasconcellos LMR, Marciano FR, Roche V, Moreira Jorge Junior A, Lobo AO

Received 8 October 2020

Accepted for publication 31 December 2020

Published 26 January 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 667—682


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Ricardo Pereira Nogueira,1,2 Jose Deuzimar Uchoa,3,4 Fanny Hilario,2 Gabriela de Fátima Santana-Melo,5 Luana Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos,5 Fernanda Roberta Marciano,6 Virginie Roche,2 Alberto Moreira Jorge Junior,2,7 Anderson Oliveira Lobo4

1Chemical Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates; 2Université Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, GrenobleINP*LEPMI, Grenoble 38000, France; 3Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Piauí, Teresina 64053-390, Brazil; 4Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Materials, BioMatLab Group, Materials Science and Engineering Graduate Program, UFPI – Federal University of Piaui, Teresina 64049-550 Brazil; 5Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, Sao Paulo State University, Sao José dos Campos 12245-000, Brazil; 6Department of Physics, Federal University of Piaui, Teresina PI 64049-550 Brazil; 7Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos 13565-905, Brazil

Correspondence: Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Campus Universitário Ministro Petrônio Portella, Av. Universitária, s/n, Centro de Tecnologia, Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, Ininga, Teresina, PI 64049-550, Brazil
Tel +55 86 32371057

Background: Nanostructured surface modifications of Ti-based biomaterials are moving up from a highly-promising to a successfully-implemented approach to developing safe and reliable implants.
Methods: The study’s main objective is to help consolidate the knowledge and identify the more suitable experimental strategies related to TiO2 nanotubes-modified surfaces. In this sense, it proposes the thorough investigation of two optimized nanotubes morphologies in terms of their biological activity (cell cytotoxicity, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red mineralization test, and cellular adhesion) and their electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) electrolyte. Layers of small-short and large-long nanotubes were prepared and investigated in their amorphous and crystallized states and compared to non-anodized samples.
Results: Results show that much more than the surface area development associated with the nanotubes’ growth; it is the heat treatment-induced change from amorphous to crystalline anatase-rutile structures that ensure enhanced biological activity coupled to high corrosion resistance.
Conclusion: Compared to both non-anodized and amorphous nanotubes layers, the crystallized nano-structures’ outstanding bioactivity was related to the remarkable increase in their hydrophilic behavior, while the enhanced electrochemical stability was ascribed to the thickening of the dense rutile barrier layer at the Ti surface beneath the nanotubes.

Keywords: surface modification, TiO2 nanotubes, commercially pure titanium, bioactivity

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