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Characterization of neural stemness status through the neurogenesis process for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Authors Mohammad MH, Al-Shammari AM, Al-Juboory AA, Yaseen NY

Received 16 August 2015

Accepted for publication 13 November 2015

Published 18 April 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 1—15

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/SCCAA.S94545

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ruopeng Feng

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Bernard Binetruy

Video abstract presented Ahmed M Al-Shammari.

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Maeda H Mohammad,1 Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Ahmad Adnan Al-Juboory,2 Nahi Y Yaseen1

1Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center of Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Al-Mustansiriyah University, 2Department of Surgery, Neuroscience Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq


Abstract: The in vitro isolation, identification, differentiation, and neurogenesis characterization of the sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated to produce two types of cells in culture: neural cells and neural stem cells (NSCs). These types of stem cells were used as successful sources for the further treatment of central nervous system defects and injuries. The mouse bone marrow MSCs were used as the source of the stem cells in this study. β-Mercaptoethanol (BME) was used as the main inducer of the neurogenesis pathway to induce neural cells and to identify NSCs. Three types of neural markers were used: nestin as the immaturation stage marker, neurofilament light chain as the early neural marker, and microtubule-associated protein 2 as the maturation marker through different time intervals in the neurogenesis process starting from the MSCs, (as undifferentiated cells), NSCs, production stages, and toward neuron cells (as differentiated cells). The results of different exposure times to BME of the neural markers analysis done by immunocytochemistry and real time-polymerase chain reaction helped us to identify the exact timing for the neural stemness state. The results showed that the best exposure time that may be used for the production of NSCs was 6 hours. The best maintenance media for NSCs were also identified. Furthermore, we optimized exposure to BME with different times and concentrations, which could be an interesting way to modulate specific neuronal differentiation and obtain autologous neuronal phenotypes. This study was able to characterize NSCs in culture under differentiation for neurogenesis in the pathway of the neural differentiation process by studying the expressed neural genes and the ability to maintain these NSCs in culture for further differentiation in thousands of functional neurons for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries and defects.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, NES, NF-L, MAP-2

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