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Cataract induction by administration of nitroglycerin in cardiac patients through imbalance in redox status

Authors El-Gharabawy RM, Ahmed AS, Al-Najjar AH

Received 7 June 2016

Accepted for publication 3 August 2016

Published 27 September 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 1487—1496

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S114469

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Rehab M El-Gharabawy,1,2 Amira S Ahmed,1,3 Amal H Al-Najjar4

1Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, College of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, 3Hormone Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt; 4Pharmacy Services Department, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of nitroglycerin in the pathogenesis of cataract.
Design: Prospective study.
Patient and methods: This study was performed in adults from tertiary Saudi Arabian hospitals (34 males and 26 females in each group, aged from 40 to 60 years), who were divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (control group, cardiac group, idiopathic cataract group, and a group of cardiac patients using nitroglycerin and with cataracts). Fasting glucose concentrations, blood glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profiles, and levels of nitrite, conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined.
Results: Treatment of cardiac patients with nitroglycerin produced an imbalance in their systemic redox status, leading to the development of cataracts, which was reflected by a significant increase in the levels of nitrite, CD, and TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity and GSH, compared with idiopathic cataract patients. The results of correlation studies and multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between different biochemical parameters (GSH, SOD, TBARS, CD, and nitrite) in the blood and lens in both idiopathic cataract patients and cardiac patients treated with nitroglycerin.
Conclusion: The study points to the relative and predictive effects of nitric oxide derived from nitroglycerin in the development of cataract in the presence of the oxidative stress induced by nitroglycerin treatment.

Keywords: nitroglycerin, oxidative stress, cataract, nitrite, lens

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