Cardiovascular diseases in older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture: prevalence, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism, and bidirectional links
A Fisher,1,3 W Srikusalanukul,1 M Davis,1,3 P Smith2,3
1Departments of Geriatric Medicine, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, The Canberra Hospital, 3Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Background: Considerable controversy exists regarding the contribution of mineral/bone metabolism abnormalities to the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and osteoporotic fractures.
Aims and methods: To determine the relationships between mineral/bone metabolism biomarkers and CVD in 746 older patients with hip fracture, clinical data were recorded and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, troponin I, parameters of bone turnover, and renal, liver, and thyroid functions were measured.
Results: CVDs were diagnosed in 472 (63.3%) patients. Vitamin D deficiency was similarly prevalent in patients with (78.0%) and without (82.1%) CVD. The CVD group had significantly higher mean PTH concentrations (7.6 vs 6.0 pmol/L, P < 0.001), a higher prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SPTH) (PTH > 6.8 pmol/L, 43.0% vs 23.3%, P < 0.001), and excess bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline corrected by creatinine [DPD/Cr] > 7.5 nmol/µmol, 87.9% vs 74.8%, P < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, SHPT (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, P = 0.007) and high DPD/Cr (OR 2.8, P = 0.016) were independent indictors of CVD. Compared to those with both PTH and DPD/Cr in the normal range, multivariate-adjusted ORs for the presence of CVD were 17.3 (P = 0.004) in subjects with SHPT and 9.7 (P < 0.001) in patients with high DPD/Cr. CVD was an independent predicator of SHPT (OR 2.8, P = 0.007) and excess DPD/Cr (OR 2.5, P = 0.031). CVD was predictive of postoperative myocardial injury, while SHPT was also an independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death.
Conclusion: SHPT and excess bone resorption are independent pathophysiological mediators underlying the bidirectional associations between CVD and hip fracture, and therefore are important diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, hip fracture, PTH, 25(OH)D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone turnover, mineral metabolism
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