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Calibrated measurement of acuity, color and stereopsis on a Nintendo® 3DS™ game console

Authors Smith KA, Damarjian AG, Molina A, Arnold RW

Received 31 December 2018

Accepted for publication 1 March 2019

Published 30 April 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 47—55

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTO.S199992

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Mr Simon Berry


Supplementary video S1: Demonstration of the use of the PDI Check game for the Nintendo® 3DS™.

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Kyle A Smith,1 Alex G Damarjian,2 Aaron Molina,3 Robert W Arnold4

1Clinical Optometry Department, Accurate Vision Clinic, Anchorage, AK, USA; 2Technology and Humanities Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Programming Department, PDI Check, Anchorage, AK, USA; 4The Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA

Significance: A Nintendo® 3DS™ game can reliably test monocular near acuity, stereopsis and color without the need for occlusion patches or goggles.
Purpose: We developed dynamic, forced-multiple choice games to measure monocular near acuity, color vision and stereopsis on the autostereoscopic barrier screen of the Nintendo 3DS gaming system.
Methods: In an institutional review board-approved study, pediatric and adult patients and normal subjects performed routine patched near visual acuity, Ishahara’s color test and Stereo Fly tests. Then each subject performed a two-phase orientation and testing game, “PDI Check”, on a Nintendo 3DS.
Results: Forty-five patients aged 5–60 years completed the routine and Nintendo near tests, resulting in positive, consistent, discriminatory correlation functions. From ROC curves, referral criteria were determined to separate poor from fair-to-normal monocular acuity with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, stereoacuity with 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity, and color with 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
Conclusion: The Nintendo 3DS game PDI Check can provide consistent near vision testing via a dynamic, randomized method that does not require goggles for stereo, and does not require patching to assure monocular testing.

Keywords: near sensory testing, video game, autostereoscopic barrier screen, monocular visual acuity, stereopsis, dynamic color test

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