Calibrated measurement of acuity, color and stereopsis on a Nintendo® 3DS™ game console
Received 31 December 2018
Accepted for publication 1 March 2019
Published 30 April 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 47—55
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Mr Simon Berry
Kyle A Smith,1 Alex G Damarjian,2 Aaron Molina,3 Robert W Arnold4
1Clinical Optometry Department, Accurate Vision Clinic, Anchorage, AK, USA; 2Technology and Humanities Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Programming Department, PDI Check, Anchorage, AK, USA; 4The Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA
Significance: A Nintendo® 3DS™ game can reliably test monocular near acuity, stereopsis and color without the need for occlusion patches or goggles.
Purpose: We developed dynamic, forced-multiple choice games to measure monocular near acuity, color vision and stereopsis on the autostereoscopic barrier screen of the Nintendo 3DS gaming system.
Methods: In an institutional review board-approved study, pediatric and adult patients and normal subjects performed routine patched near visual acuity, Ishahara’s color test and Stereo Fly tests. Then each subject performed a two-phase orientation and testing game, “PDI Check”, on a Nintendo 3DS.
Results: Forty-five patients aged 5–60 years completed the routine and Nintendo near tests, resulting in positive, consistent, discriminatory correlation functions. From ROC curves, referral criteria were determined to separate poor from fair-to-normal monocular acuity with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, stereoacuity with 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity, and color with 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
Conclusion: The Nintendo 3DS game PDI Check can provide consistent near vision testing via a dynamic, randomized method that does not require goggles for stereo, and does not require patching to assure monocular testing.
Keywords: near sensory testing, video game, autostereoscopic barrier screen, monocular visual acuity, stereopsis, dynamic color test
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]