By blocking hexokinase-2 phosphorylation, limonin suppresses tumor glycolysis and induces cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma
Authors Yao J, Liu J, Zhao W
Received 10 February 2018
Accepted for publication 20 April 2018
Published 3 July 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 3793—3803
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yao Dai
Junliang Yao, Jingtian Liu, Wensheng Zhao
Department of General Surgery, Jinshan Hospital, Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Introduction: The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of limonin on tumor glycolysis and the underlying mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods: Cell proliferation and colony formation assays were performed to evaluate the potency of limonin against HCC cells in vitro. The glucose consumption and lactate production after limonin treatment was determined. The effect of limonin on hexokinase-2 ( HK-2) activity was assessed and the mitochondrial location of HK-2 was studied by immunoprecipitation. Cell apoptosis and protein expression were detected by flow cytometry and western blotting respectively. Protein overexpression by plasmid transfection was adopted to investigate the molecular mechanisms.
Results: HCC proliferation and colony formation were inhibited by limonin in vitro. With the suppression of HK-2 activity, the glycolytic level in HCC cells was substantially reduced, which was evidenced by the decrease of glucose consumption and lactate production. The phosphorylation of HK-2 was substantially inhibited by limonin, which resulted in the disassociation of HK-2 from mitochondria. Due to the reduction of HK-2 in mitochondria, increasing Bax were shifted to the mitochondria and gave rise to the release of cytochrome C, which induced HCC cells to subject to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Mechanism investigations revealed that the decrease of HK-2 phosphorylation was mainly due to the inhibition of Akt activity. In Akt exogenously overexpressed HCC cells, limonin-mediated cell proliferation inhibition, glycolysis suppression and apoptosis induction were significantly impaired.
Conclusion: Limonin inhibited the tumor glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing HK-2 activity, and the suppression of HK-2 was closely related to the decrease of Akt activity.
Keywords: apoptosis, limonin, tumor glycolysis, hexokinase-2
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