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Bursting the Virulence Traits of MDR Strain of Candida albicans Using Sodium Alginate-based Microspheres Containing Nystatin-loaded MgO/CuO Nanocomposites

Authors Abid S, Uzair B, Niazi MBK, Fasim F, Bano SA, Jamil N, Batool R, Sajjad S

Received 29 October 2020

Accepted for publication 16 December 2020

Published 15 February 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 1157—1174

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S282305

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster


Sadia Abid,1 Bushra Uzair,1 Muhammad Bilal Khan Niazi,2 Fehmida Fasim,3 Syeda Asma Bano,4 Nazia Jamil,5 Rida Batool,5 Shamaila Sajjad6

1Department of Biological Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Discipline of Biomedical Science, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Microbiology, University of Haripur, Haripur, Pakistan; 5Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan; 6Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Correspondence: Bushra Uzair
Department of Biological Sciences, International Islamic University, New Campus, Female Block, Room No. 007, Islamabad, H-10, Pakistan
Tel +92 33 1538 3988
Fax +92 901 9815
Email bushra.uzair@iiu.edu.pk

Introduction: Candida albicans is a major opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of human infections. Currently available therapeutic agents are limited for treating these fungal infections due to multidrug resistance as well as their nonbiodegradability, poor biocompatibility and toxicity. In order to battle these limitations, we have synthesized a polymeric system as microcarriers to deliver the antifungal drug. The objective of the present study was to immobilize MgO/CuO nanocomposite and nystatin-loaded MgO/CuO nanocomposites in nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, biodegradable and biocompatible sodium alginate microspheres for the first time.
Materials and Methods: Nanoparticle-loaded sodium alginate microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. Synthesized microspheres were characterized using standard characterization techniques and were evaluated for biological activity against MDR strain of C. albicans.
Results: Characterization of microspheres by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed loading of Nys-MgO/CuO NPs, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed rough spherical beads with a highly porous surface having an average size in the range of 8– 10 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyzed its semicrystalline structure. Entrapment efficiency of Nys-MgO/CuO NPs was 80% and release kinetic study revealed sustained and prolonged release of drug in pH 5.5. Flow cytometry analysis showed yeast cell death caused by Nys-MgO/CuO MS exhibits late apoptotic features. In cytotoxicity assay 5– 14 mg of microspheres did not cause hemolysis. Microspheres reduced virulence traits of C. albicans such as germ tube and biofilm formation were compromised at concentration of 5 mg/mL. Antimicrobial assessment results revealed a pronounced inhibitory effect against C. albicans.
Conclusion: The in vitro experiments have shown promising results based on good stability, Nys-MgO/CuO NP-encapsulated microspheres can be used as a prolonged controlled release system against MDR pathogenic C. albicans.

Keywords: microspheres, antimicrobial activity, nystatin, Candida, metal oxides

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