Burden of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Hospitalized Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal
Received 21 November 2019
Accepted for publication 25 February 2020
Published 3 March 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 725—732
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Santosh Kumar Yadav, 1, 2 Rajshree Bhujel, 2 Pradip Hamal, 3 Shyam Kumar Mishra, 2 Sangita Sharma, 2 Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand 2
1Department of Microbiology, Rajarshi Janak University, Janakpurdham, Nepal; 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Department of Pathology, B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal
Correspondence: Santosh Kumar Yadav
Department of Microbiology, Rajarshi Janak University, Janakpurdham, Nepal
Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a significant multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen worldwide and is responsible for various healthcare-associated infections. The MDR strains have been reported increasingly during the last decades in hospitalized patients. They have developed resistance to most of the available antibiotics and are known to produce various acquired β-lactamases. The β-lactamase producing strains have a potential for rapid dissemination in hospital settings, as it is often plasmid-mediated. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (ISDA) stated A. baumannii as one of the “red alert” pathogens that greatly threatens the utility of our current antibacterial armamentarium. The study attempted to investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance among MDR A. baumannii and their potential implications in hospitalized patients in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal.
Methods: This study was conducted at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Nepal from January 2017 to December 2017. A total of 177 A. baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients were included in the study. The AST was performed by disc diffusion method. The MDR strains were identified by the criteria of Magiorakos et al, ESBL production by CLSI guidelines, and AmpC β-lactamase production by the AmpC disc test. MBL and KPC production were detected as per the method of Tsakris et al.
Results: Out of 177 A. baumannii, 91.0% were MDR isolates. Among the MDR isolates, the majority were isolated from respiratory tract specimens and were isolated from ICU patients. Most of the MDR isolates were resistant to all first-line antibiotics and all were completely sensitive to only polymyxin B and colistin sulfate. MBL (67.7%) was the common β-lactamase production among MDR isolates.
Conclusion: Acinetobacter baumannii can cause a vast variety of infections in hospitalized patients. The highly resistant MDR strains are common in tertiary care hospitals. This bacteria lead to high morbidity and mortality as we are left with the only option of treating them by potentially toxic antibiotics like colistin sulfate and polymyxin B. Detection of drug resistance and rational use of antibiotics play a crucial role in the fight against this MDR pathogen.
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, hospitalized patients, multidrug resistant, metallo-β-lactamase
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