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Breast and cervical cancer-screening uptake among females in Ardabil, northwest Iran: a community-based study

Authors Farzaneh E, Heydari H, Shekarchi AA, Kamran A

Received 21 October 2016

Accepted for publication 19 December 2016

Published 17 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 985—992


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Manfred Beleut

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Samir Farghaly

Esmaeil Farzaneh,1 Heshmatolah Heydari,2 Ali Akbar Shekarchi,3 Aziz Kamran4

1Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 2Department of Nursing, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran; 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

Purpose: Breast and cervical cancers are the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian females. In contrast to previous studies, this study was carried out with a large sample size for assessment of breast self-examination (BSE)-, clinical breast examination (CBE)-, mammography-, and Pap smear-uptake rates and determination of associations among these screening behaviors with sociodemographic and cognitive variables in Azeri females.
Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional, community-based study that was carried out among 1,134 females 20–60 years old during March–June 2016. Data-collection variables included sociodemographic questions, screening behaviors for breast and cervical cancer, self-efficacy, beliefs, and barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using χ2, Mann–Whitney U, and logistic regression tests.
Results: Among the 1,134 participants, 53.9%, 9.8%, and 28.1% had done BSE, CBE, and Pap smear tests, respectively, and among the 625 females aged >40 years, 187 (29.9%) had done the mammography test. Moreover, 416 (36.7%), 103 (16.5%), and 64 (5.6%) females had done BSE, mammography, and CBE regularly, respectively. Beliefs, barriers, income, health insurance, number of children, and age were all important factors for BSE and regular BSE and mammography. Females who had high belief scores were more likely to undertake mammography (odds ratio [OR]: 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.5), regular mammography (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.9–9.3), regular CBE (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.2–1.3), and Pap smears (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Also, females who had high self-efficacy scores were more likely to perform regular BSE (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5) and mammography (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4–4.6) than females with lower self-efficacy scores.
Conclusion: The frequency of breast and cervical cancer screening was low in our study. The findings of this study indicated that beliefs, self-efficacy, and barriers were important predictive factors of cancer-screening behavior among the females studied.

Keywords: breast cancer, cervical cancer, screening, females

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