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Bone-Targeted Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Osteoporosis Therapy

Authors Wang Y, Yao J, Cai L, Liu T, Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhou Z, Li T, Liu M, Lai R, Liu X

Received 28 June 2020

Accepted for publication 29 September 2020

Published 15 October 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 7967—7977


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun

Yayu Wang,1,* Jie Yao,2– 4,* Lizhao Cai,2– 4,* Tong Liu,1 Xiaogang Wang,2,4 Ye Zhang,2– 4 Zhiying Zhou,2– 4 Tingwei Li,2– 4 Minyi Liu,2– 4 Renfa Lai,2– 4 Xiangning Liu2– 4

1Department of Cell Biology & Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Stomatology Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Stomatology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, People’s Republic of China; 4Clinical Research Platform for Interdiscipline of Stomatology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Xiangning Liu; Renfa Lai
The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 20 3868 8109
Fax +86 20 3868 8000

Background: Current drugs used for osteoporosis therapy show strong adverse effects. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) provide another choice for osteoporosis therapy. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs)-derived EVs promote bone regeneration; however, their clinical application is limited due to non-specific tissue targeting. Alendronate specifically targets bone tissue via hydroxyapatite. Therefore, EVs were combined with alendronate to generate Ale-EVs by “click chemistry” to facilitate EVs targeting bone via alendronate/hydroxyapatite binding.
Methods: Ale-EVs were characterized based on size using dynamic light scattering analysis and morphology was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite affinity of Ale-EVs was detected by flow cytometry. Bone targeting of Ale-EVs was tested by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. Cell viability was assessed by using WST-8 reduction assay kit for testing the ability of Ale-EVs to promote mMSCs proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase experiment was used to detect ability of Ale-EVs to promote differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Western blotting and Q-PCR assay were used to detect the early marker of osteogenic differentiation. Antiosteoporotic effects of Ale-EVs were detected in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis rat model. The safety of the Ale-EVs in vivo was measured by H&E staining and serum markers assay.
Results: In vitro, Ale-EVs had high affinity with hydroxyapatite. Also, ex vivo data indicated that Ale-EVs-DiD treatment of mice induced strong fluorescece in bone tissues compared with EVs-DiD group. Furthermore, results suggested that Ale-EVs promoted the growth and differentiation of mouse MSCs. They also protected against osteoporosis in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Ale-EVs were well tolerated and no side effects were found, indicating that Ale-EVs specifically target bone and can be used as a new therapeutic in osteoporosis treatment.
Conclusion: We used the Ale-N3 to modify mouse mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles by copper-free “click chemistry” to generate a Ale-EVs system. The Ale-EVs had a high affinity for bone and have great potential for clinical applications in osteoporosis therapy with low systemic toxicity.

Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs, mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs, bone-targeting, osteoporosis, click chemistry

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