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Bone strength and management of postmenopausal fracture risk with antiresorptive therapies: considerations for women’s health practice

Authors Cheung A, Frame H, Ho M, Mackinnon E, Brown J, Elsaid S

Received 12 May 2016

Accepted for publication 14 July 2016

Published 28 September 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 537—547

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S112621

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Elie Al-Chaer


Angela M Cheung,1–3 Heather Frame,4 Michael Ho,5 Erin S Mackinnon,6 Jacques P Brown7

1Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2Centre of Excellence in Skeletal Health Assessment, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network (UHN), 3Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Assiniboine Clinic, Winnipeg, MB, 5University Health Network, Toronto, 6Amgen Canada, Inc, Mississauga, ON, 7Rheumatology Division, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada

Abstract: Bone strength – and, hence, fracture risk – reflects the structural and material properties of the skeleton, which changes with bone turnover during aging and following effective pharmacotherapy. A variety of powerful new techniques (quantitative computed tomography, as well as peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography) provide precise images of bone structure and can be used to model the response of specific bones to different types of mechanical load. This review explores the various components of bone strength and the clinical significance of measures, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and modern imaging data, with regard to fracture risk in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, before and after initiating antiresorptive therapy. These imaging and related techniques offer an ever-clearer picture of the changes in bone structure and bone mineral metabolism during normal aging and in osteoporosis, as well as in response to treatment. However, because the newer techniques are not yet available in routine practice, validated tools for absolute fracture risk assessment remain essential for clinical decision making. These tools, which are tailored to patient risk data in individual countries, are based on bone mineral density and other readily available clinical data. In addition, bone turnover marker measurements can be useful in assessing risk and guiding treatment decisions for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Such tests may be used before starting a patient on antiresorptive therapy and for ongoing monitoring of treatment effectiveness.

Keywords: bone strength, antiresorptive, postmenopausal osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, denosumab, fracture risk
 

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