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Bone repair by periodontal ligament stem cell-seeded nanohydroxyapatite-chitosan scaffold

Authors Ge S, Zhao N, Wang L, Yu M, Liu H, Song A, Huang J, Wang G, Yang P

Received 4 August 2012

Accepted for publication 5 September 2012

Published 10 October 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 5405—5414

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S36714

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Meijiao Yu,1 Hong Liu,2 Aimei Song,1 Jing Huang,1 Guancong Wang,2 Pishan Yang1

1Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine of Shandong Province, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, 2Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, China

Background: A nanohydroxyapatite-coated chitosan scaffold has been developed in recent years, but the effect of this composite scaffold on the viability and differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone repair is still unknown. This study explored the behavior of PDLSCs on a new nanohydroxyapatite-coated genipin-chitosan conjunction scaffold (HGCCS) in vitro as compared with an uncoated genipin-chitosan framework, and evaluated the effect of PDLSC-seeded HGCCS on bone repair in vivo.
Methods: Human PDLSCs were cultured and identified, seeded on a HGCCS and on a genipin-chitosan framework, and assessed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at different time intervals. Moreover, PDLSC-seeded scaffolds were used in a rat calvarial defect model, and new bone formation was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining at 12 weeks postoperatively.
Results: PDLSCs were clonogenic and positive for STRO-1. They had the capacity to undergo osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. When seeded on HGCCS, PDLSCs exhibited significantly greater viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and upregulated the bone-related markers, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin to a greater extent compared with PDLSCs seeded on the genipin-chitosan framework. The use of PDLSC-seeded HGCCS promoted calvarial bone repair.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of HGCCS combined with PDLSCs as a promising tool for bone regeneration.

Keywords: periodontal ligament, stem cells, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, scaffold, tissue engineering

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