Bladder Cancer in Iran: An Epidemiological Review
Authors Kalan Farmanfarma K, Mahdavifar N, Salehiniya H
Received 28 September 2019
Accepted for publication 6 January 2020
Published 5 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 91—103
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli
Khadijeh Kalan Farmanfarma,1 Neda Mahdavifar,2 Hamid Salehiniya3
1Department of Epidemiology, Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran; 3Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
Correspondence: Hamid Salehiniya Tel +989357750428
Email [email protected]
Purpose: Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Iran. Information about the epidemiological situation of the disease and its risk factors is necessary for conducting a planning program to reduce the disease. This study is conducted with the aim of evaluating the epidemiological features of bladder cancer in Iran.
Methods: This is a systematic review of the published articles in both Persian and English in international and national journals during the years 2000– 2019 with key words of Iran and bladder cancer. Articles were selected from the national information database (SID, Magiran) and international databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). Articles related to the epidemiological aspects of the disease, including incidence, prevalence, mortality, and risk factors, were evaluated.
Results: The incidence rate of bladder cancer was about 1.6– 115; cumulative survival rate was 0.95, mortality rate was 0.5– 0.84 and its prevalence in the Iranian population was between 4.10% and 12.8%. The risk of developing malignancy in major risk factor groups, including smoking and opium, was 6.2 (2.04– 18.7), increases in protein and animal fat consumption were about 5- and 19-times higher than in the general population, respectively. In terms of occupational exposure, bus and heavy truck drivers were 11.3 (1.3– 92.05) more at risk than others.
Conclusion: Regarding the increasing trend of this disease, changes in lifestyle to reduce risk factors can be effective in decreasing the incidence and mortality rate of this malignancy.
Keywords: bladder cancer, epidemiology, Iran, incidence, risk factor
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