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Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by the extreme bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans and an evaluation of their antibacterial properties

Authors Li J, Li Q, Ma X, Tian B, Li T, Yu J, Dai S, Weng Y, Hua Y

Received 12 August 2016

Accepted for publication 11 October 2016

Published 9 November 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 5931—5944

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S119618

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun


Jiulong Li,1,* Qinghao Li,1,* Xiaoqiong Ma,2,* Bing Tian,1 Tao Li,1 Jiangliu Yu,1 Shang Dai,1 Yulan Weng,1 Yuejin Hua1

1Key Laboratory for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, 2Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Deinococcus radiodurans is an extreme bacterium known for its high resistance to stresses including radiation and oxidants. The ability of D. radiodurans to reduce Au(III) and biosynthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). D. radiodurans efficiently synthesized AuNPs from 1 mM Au(III) solution in 8 h. The AuNPs were of spherical, triangular and irregular shapes with an average size of 43.75 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.23 as measured by DLS. AuNPs were distributed in the cell envelope, across the cytosol and in the extracellular space. XRD analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the AuNPs from the cell supernatant. Data from the FTIR and XPS showed that upon binding to proteins or compounds through interactions with carboxyl, amine, phospho and hydroxyl groups, Au(III) may be reduced to Au(I), and further reduced to Au(0) with the capping groups to stabilize the AuNPs. Biosynthesis of AuNPs was optimized with respect to the initial concentration of gold salt, bacterial growth period, solution pH and temperature. The purified AuNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria by damaging their cytoplasmic membrane. Therefore, the extreme bacterium D. radiodurans can be used as a novel bacterial candidate for efficient biosynthesis of AuNPs, which exhibited potential in biomedical application as an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: Deinococcus radiodurans, gold nanoparticles, gold ions, reduction, antibacterial
 
 

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