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Biophysical evaluation of cells on nanotubular surfaces: the effects of atomic ordering and chemistry

Authors Shokuhfar T, Hamlekhan A, Chang JY, Choi CK, Sukotjo C, Friedrich C

Received 7 May 2014

Accepted for publication 4 June 2014

Published 12 August 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 3737—3748

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S67344

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Tolou Shokuhfar,1–3 Azhang Hamlekhan,1 Jen-Yung Chang,1 Chang Kyoung Choi,1 Cortino Sukotjo,4 Craig Friedrich1

1Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Multi Scale Technologies Institute, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 2Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, 4Department of Restorative Dentistry, Comprehensive Dental Implant Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, Chicago, IL, USA

Abstract: After the implantation of a biomaterial in the body, the first interaction occurs between the cells in contact with the biomaterial surface. Therefore, evaluating the cell–substrate interface is crucial for designing a successful implant. In this study, the interaction of MC3T3 osteoblasts was studied on commercially pure and alloy (Ti6Al4V) Ti surfaces treated with amorphous and crystalline titanium dioxide nanotubes. The results indicated that the presence of nanotubes increased the density of osteoblast cells in comparison to bare surfaces (no nanotubes). More importantly, our finding shows that the chemistry of the substrate affects the cell density rather than the morphology of the cells. A novel approach based on the focused ion beam technique was used to investigate the biophysical cell–substrate interaction. The analysis revealed that portions of the cells migrated inside the crystalline nanotubes. This observation was correlated with the super hydrophilic properties of the crystalline nanotubes.

Keywords: nanotubes, osteoblasts, titanium dioxide

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